The charter consisted of a preamble and 63 clauses and dealt mainly with feudal concerns that had little impact outside 13th century England. However, the document was remarkable in that it implied there were laws the king was bound to observe, thus precluding any future claim to absolutism by the English monarch. Of greatest interest to later generations was clause 39, which stated that “no free man shall be arrested or imprisoned or disseised [dispossessed] or outlawed or exiled or in any way victimised…except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.” This clause has been celebrated as an early guarantee of trial by jury and of habeas corpus and inspired England’s Petition of Right (1628) and the Habeas Corpus Act (1679).
The Georgia Historical Society placed a new historic marker at the location of the oldest African-American owned business in Savannah, according to the Albany Herald.
“The Bynes-Royall Funeral Home has provided funeral services for over 140 years in Savannah,” GHS Marker Manager Elyse Butler said. “This new historical marker, along with the Louis B. Toomer: Founder of Carver State Bank and The McKelvey-Powell Building markers, highlights the importance of the West Broad Street (now Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard) role as the historical business and cultural epicenter for Savannah’s black community.”
Maj. William Royall opened the Royall Undertaking Company following the 1876 yellow fever epidemic. His work transformed the funeral business in Georgia by training black morticians to work in the industry. In 1955, Frank and Frenchye Bynes purchased the business that would later play a role in the civil rights movement as the site of meetings with civil rights icons like Martin Luther King Jr. and W.W. Law, among others. Today it is the oldest continuously black-owned business in Savannah and remains under the ownership of Bynes descendants.
On June 11, 1776, the Continental Congress appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, John Adams of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Roger Sherman of Connecticut and Robert R. Livingston of New York to draft a declaration of independence from Britain. Language in the original draft that condemned the introduction of the slave trade in the colonies did not make the final draft.
The Declaration was adopted unanimously by the Fifth Virginia Convention at Williamsburg, Virginia on June 12, 1776 as a separate document from the Constitution of Virginia which was later adopted on June 29, 1776. In 1830, the Declaration of Rights was incorporated within the Virginia State Constitution as Article I, but even before that Virginia’s Declaration of Rights stated that it was ‘”the basis and foundation of government” in Virginia. A slightly updated version may still be seen in Virginia’s Constitution, making it legally in effect to this day.
It was initially drafted by George Mason circa May 20, 1776; James Madison assisted him with the section on religious freedom.
The Virginia Declaration of Rights heavily influenced later documents. Thomas Jefferson is thought to have drawn on it when he drafted the United States Declaration of Independence in the same month (June 1776). James Madison was also influenced by the Declaration while drafting the Bill of Rights (introduced September 1789, ratified 1791), as was the Marquis de Lafayette in voting the French Revolution‘s Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789).
The importance of the Virginia Declaration of Rights is that it was the first constitutional protection of individual rights, rather than protecting only members of Parliament or consisting of simple laws that can be changed as easily as passed.
On the morning of June 11, the day the students were expected to register, Wallace stood in front of the University of Alabama campus auditorium flanked by Alabama state troopers while cameras flashed and recorders from the press corps whirred. Kennedy, at the White House, and Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach, in Tuscaloosa, kept in touch by phone.
When Wallace refused to let the students enter for registration, Katzenbach phoned Kennedy. Kennedy upped the pressure on Wallace, immediately issuing Presidential Proclamation 3542, which ordered the governor to comply, and authorizing the secretary of defense to call up the Alabama National Guard with Executive Order 11111.
That afternoon, Katzenbach returned with the students and asked Wallace to step aside. Wallace, knowing he was beaten, relented, having saved face with his hard-line, anti-segregation constituency.
As the NAACP’s chief counsel from 1938 to 1961, he argued 32 cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, successfully challenging racial segregation, most notably in public education. He won 29 of these cases, including a groundbreaking victory in 1954′s Brown v. Board of Education, in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation violated the 14th Amendment to the Constitution and was thus illegal. The decision served as a great impetus for the African American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s and ultimately led to the abolishment of segregation in all public facilities and accommodations.
In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the U.S. Court of Appeals, but his nomination was opposed by many Southern senators, and he was not confirmed until the next year. In June 1967, President Johnson nominated him to the Supreme Court, and in late August he was confirmed. During his 24 years on the high court, Associate Justice Marshall consistently challenged discrimination based on race or sex, opposed the death penalty, and supported the rights of criminal defendants. He also defended affirmative action and women’s right to abortion. As appointments by a largely Republican White House changed the politics of the Court, Marshall found his liberal opinions increasingly in the minority. He retired in 1991, and two years later passed away.
After failing to persuade the Times to voluntarily cease publication on June 14, Attorney General John N. Mitchell and Nixon obtained a federal court injunction forcing the Times to cease publication after three articles.Times publisher Arthur Ochs Sulzberger said:
Newspapers, as our editorial said this morning, we’re really a part of history that should have been made available, considerably longer ago. I just didn’t feel there was any breach of national security, in the sense that we were giving secrets to the enemy.
The newspaper appealed the injunction, and the case New York Times Co. v. United States (403 U.S. 713) quickly rose through the U.S. legal system to the Supreme Court.
On June 18, 1971, The Washington Post began publishing its own series of articles based upon the Pentagon Papers; Ellsberg gave portions to editor Ben Bradlee. That day, Assistant U.S. Attorney General William Rehnquist asked the Post to cease publication. After the paper refused, Rehnquist sought an injunction in U.S. district court. Judge Murray Gurfein declined to issue such an injunction, writing that “[t]he security of the Nation is not at the ramparts alone. Security also lies in the value of our free institutions. A cantankerous press, an obstinate press, a ubiquitous press must be suffered by those in authority in order to preserve the even greater values of freedom of expression and the right of the people to know.” The government appealed that decision, and on June 26 the Supreme Court agreed to hear it jointly with the New York Times case.Fifteen other newspapers received copies of the study and began publishing it.
On June 30, 1971, the Supreme Court decided, 6–3, that the government failed to meet the heavy burden of proof required for prior restraint injunction. The nine justices wrote nine opinions disagreeing on significant, substantive matters.
Only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception in government. And paramount among the responsibilities of a free press is the duty to prevent any part of the government from deceiving the people and sending them off to distant lands to die of foreign fevers and foreign shot and shell.
[T]he most memorable performer may have been an automobile: the 1961 Ferrari 250 GT California, a custom-built car revered by auto collectors.
According to Motor Trend, the first Ferrari 250 GT Spyder California—colloquially known as the “Cal Spyder”—was produced in 1957 and the last was built in early 1963. In addition to the long-wheelbase (LWB) Spyder, Ferrari also produced a sportier, short-wheelbase (SWB) model. Though estimates vary as to exactly how many were made—Cameron says “less than a hundred” in the film—approximately 46 LWB and between 50 and 57 SWB Spyders were produced in all. For “Ferris Bueller’s Day Off,” the filmmakers used a modified MGB roadster with a fiberglass body as a stand-in for the Ferrari. The filmmakers reportedly received angry letters from car enthusiasts who believed that a real Ferrari had been damaged.
One 1961 250 GT SWB Spyder California, with chassis number GT 2377GT, belonged to the actor James Coburn (“The Magnificent Seven”), who died in 2002. On May 18, 2008, at the second annual Ferrari Leggenda e Passione event at Maranello, Italy, the British deejay Chris Evans bought that car at auction for 6.4 million Euros, or $10,894,400 (including fees), the highest price ever paid for an automobile at auction.
I am delighted today to approve the Equal Pay Act of 1963, which prohibits arbitrary discrimination against women in the payment of wages. This act represents many years of effort by labor, management, and several private organizations unassociated with labor or management, to call attention to the unconscionable practice of paying female employees less wages than male employees for the same job. This measure adds to our laws another structure basic to democracy. It will add protection at the working place to the women, the same rights at the working place in a sense that they have enjoyed at the polling place.
While much remains to be done to achieve full equality of economic opportunity–for the average woman worker earns only 60 percent of the average wage for men–this legislation is a significant step forward.
Trudeau, 94, will receive the Legion of Honour, France’s highest honor for civil and military accomplishments. He was a prisoner of war in WWII and fought in Normandy on D-Day, June 6, 1944.
During his service in WWII, he was wounded in his legs and back before being captured by German forces. He worked as a POW on a railway at a coal mine until being freed May 13, 1945.
He enlisted in the U.S. Army after the war and served until 1967. He worked as a civil signal instructor for the military until 1975 and served seven terms as Grovetown mayor before becoming a city councilman.
A document Reed’s campaign team filed with the Georgia ethics commission opens the door for Reed to start accepting political contributions for the 2021 race. He jumped in one month after current Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms announced she won’t seek reelection to a second term.
He was elected mayor in 2009 at age 40 after serving in the Georgia legislature. He spent two terms in the mayor’s office, leaving at the end of 2017 as his administration was dogged by a federal investigation into city contracts and finances.
The FBI began investigating corruption associated with Atlanta City Hall in 2015 and has charged a half-dozen members of Reed’s administration, including his chief financial officer. In an interview last month with WSB-TV, Reed said he is cleared because “the Justice Department under William Barr looked into every aspect of my life for more than three years and took no action.” The charges, he said, were related to the “individual behavior” of certain people in his administration.
“Anything on my watch, I take responsibility for,” Reed told the Atlanta TV station. “I’m sorry I didn’t see it faster, and certainly after what I’ve been through personally, but more importantly what our city was taken through, I would do everything in my power to make sure it didn’t happen again.”
Reed’s campaign paperwork comes as the former mayor plans to celebrate his 52nd birthday with a fundraising party Thursday. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported it obtained an invitation that spelled out donor levels from $25,000 for hosts and $1,000 for guests.
Frankly, I’d be willing to accept a moderate amount of corruption if it meant cleaning up street crime.
Sure, he’s likely the frontrunner in the race to succeed incumbent Keisha Lance Bottoms, who famously opted against a run for a second term just weeks ago. He’s by far the biggest name in the crowded race. He’s got a network of donors and a track record.
He’s also trailed by the cloud of a federal corruption investigation that began during his tenure and has already ensnared several members of his administration, including former top deputies. He says he’s done nothing wrong, and he hasn’t been charged with any crime.
But we also want to highlight another question: Can Reed — a proud Democrat — wind up as the preferred choice for Republicans in the nonpartisan race for City Hall? Because the relatively small number of GOP voters in the city could be the deciding factor in a close contest.
One insider called it the “I hate Kasim but I hate crime even more” electorate.
My sincere condolences to State Rep. Patty Bentley, (D-Butler) whose husband died this week of COVID, according to 13WMAZ.
Rep. Bentley remembers her husband Darryl Bentley as being a great partner, father to five, and friend to many.
The couple celebrated their 12th anniversary this past Sunday.
Darryl got sick at the end of December.
Patty says there were no hospital beds in Macon or Atlanta, so they transferred him to Savannah for a bed.
“That was really hard on me. However, I did what I needed to do to be there to support my husband. He’s sick, he was in the hospital, and I needed to be there,” Bentley said.
In the first few months after he tested positive, she says coronavirus restrictions kept her from being by his side.
“I want people to think a lot about that. You could be in the same predicament if you contract this virus and have to be sent miles and miles away from your family. Please protect yourselves,” Bentley said.
On June 8, 2004, Georgia hosted the G-8 summit meeting of the world’s major industrial democracies, which included representatives from the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom, plus a representative from the European Union. The 30th meeting of the G-8 was held at Sea Island at the Cloister.
Georgia Politics, Campaigns, and Elections
Governor Brian Kemp spoke at Gwinnett Technical Institute for a groundbreaking, according to the AJC.
Gov. Brian Kemp and a few dozen state and local officials visited Gwinnett Technical College on Monday to celebrate the beginning of a $37.8 million project that aims to educate more students interested in careers in cybersecurity and other emerging technologies as well as some bread-and-butter courses such as welding and physics.
The college broke ground on a computer information systems, cybersecurity and emerging technologies building near the southern end of its Lawrenceville campus. It is also adding 36,000 square feet to an existing building nearby.
“It is going to be a game changer for us and will really help us to continue to sell this state to those who want to expand here or move their business here,” Kemp told the crowd.
The new facility, scheduled to be completed in two years, is the first new building on the campus in 12 years. The entire project will include a new parking lot, renovations to its library, student life center and new chemistry and physics labs. The college is spending about $2 million on the entire project. The rest of the funding will come from state.
Lee’s resolution declared: “That these United Colonies are, and of right out to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; that measures should be immediately taken for procuring the assistance of foreign powers, and a Confederation be formed to bind the colonies more closely together.”
The Battle of Midway began on June 4, 1942. During the battle, four Japanese aircraft carriers that had participated in the attack on Pearl Harbor and one cruiser were sunk at the cost of one American carrier and one destroyer.
On the morning of June 5, 1944, U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the supreme commander of Allied forces in Europe gave the go-ahead for Operation Overlord, the largest amphibious military operation in history. On his orders, 6,000 landing craft, ships and other vessels carrying 176,000 troops began to leave England for the trip to France. That night, 822 aircraft filled with parachutists headed for drop zones in Normandy. An additional 13,000 aircraft were mobilized to provide air cover and support for the invasion.
By dawn on June 6, 18,000 parachutists were already on the ground; the land invasions began at 6:30 a.m. The British and Canadians overcame light opposition to capture Gold, Juno and Sword beaches; so did the Americans at Utah. The task was much tougher at Omaha beach, however, where 2,000 troops were lost and it was only through the tenacity and quick-wittedness of troops on the ground that the objective was achieved. By day’s end, 155,000 Allied troops–Americans, British and Canadians–had successfully stormed Normandy’s beaches.
The Rome City and Floyd County commissions will act this month to approve several new animal control ordinances. Members of the Joint Service Committee learned Tuesday that Cave Spring is also expected to follow suit in July.
One ordinance will prohibit long-term “tethering” where dog owners leave the animal outside chained within their yard. A second ordinance will seek to define the required amount of shelter for an animal, which is not defined in the existing ordinance. The third will address who pays the cost of the care for an animal while they are housed at Public Animal Welfare Services while an owner awaits trial.
“We’ve had animals up there for years,” said County Manager Jamie McCord. “They become institutionalized just waiting on trial, which is not good for the animal or the person going to trial.”
The issue of chaining animals outside 24-7 seems to be more of a problem in Rome and Cave Spring, where some folks use their dogs as guard animals.
In April, PAWS Director Jeff Mitchell told commissioners that tethering leads to anti-socialization and an increase in dog bites. Mitchell estimates that 65% of dog bite calls involve dogs that are chained up.
The new ordinances will also include a definition of adequate shelter, with language that will focus on cleanliness and providing ample space for the animal to move around comfortably.
Several commissioners expressed interest in a spay-neuter ordinance. However, the lack of a low-cost option for those services in the area will put any changes relative to that issue on hold.